LONDON (Reuters) – The fatal coronavirus has taken a heavy toll on the world’s copper mines.

A truck loaded with ore is viewed in a mill inside the Codelco El Teniente copper mine, the world’s biggest underground copper mine through an sector tour team near Machali place, Rancagua, Chile Oct 15, 2020. REUTERS/Fabian Cambero

Output in key producer nations around the world this sort of as Peru cratered about the 2nd quarter of 2020 as lockdowns and quarantine measures prompted several mines dramatically to cut down functions.

Recovery has been patchy. Peruvian mines experienced just about returned to normal operate-fees by Oct, but output in Chile, the world’s most significant copper producer, started off sliding in the 3rd quarter just after a strong 1st 50 percent of the 12 months.

International mine output in the very first 10 months of 2020 was even now .5% lessen than 2019 amounts, according to the Intercontinental Copper Study Group (ICSG).

What was supposed to be a year of mined offer growth turned out to be the second consecutive 12 months of zero advancement.

The resulting provide chain tension is manifest in this year’s benchmark smelter terms which are the least expensive in a 10 years.

There is as nevertheless no signal of a turnaround in the raw products section of the copper provide chain, suggesting entire COVID-19 restoration could be a protracted affair.


Procedure and refining prices, which are what a smelter levies for processing copper concentrates into refined metal, are the greatest indicator of what is heading on in the opaque raw resources current market.

And the concept is distinct. There is not more than enough concentrate to go all around.

The benchmark phrases for this year’s shipments fell to $59.50 per tonne and 5.95 cents for each pound from what was previously a lowball $62.00 and 6.2 cents in 2019. They haven’t been this very low since 2011, a different year of mine supply tension, when they have been settled at $56.00 and 5.6 cents.

Very last year’s provide woes coincided with greater hunger in China as new smelters entered the competitors for uncooked components.

That must have translated into extra concentrates imports. But soon after increases of 14% and 12% in 2018 and 2019 respectively, imports had been down by 1% over the very first 11 months of 2020 as smelters struggled to resource product.

Until there was a huge rebound in December itself, 2020 could be the initially calendar year of lessen concentrates arrivals since 2011.

An unofficial ban on Australian content hasn’t aided. Strained bilateral relations amongst Australia and China have impacted Chinese purchases of copper concentrates, which fell to zero in December.

However, Australia was only the fifth premier provider to China in 2019 and even though constricted trade has exacerbated the tightness, the root cause has been COVID-19 disruption, notably in Peru.

What is typically China’s 2nd best supplier soon after Chile observed mined copper production deal by 38% over April and May possibly and by 14.5% around the January-Oct time period, in accordance to the ICSG.


There is no indication of any brief-term alleviation of the squeeze on smelter margins.

In truth, it may be getting even worse.

China’s Smelter Obtain Team, a grouping of some of the country’s most significant players, has decreased its ground obtain phrases to $53.00 and 5.3 cents for the very first quarter.

The Team has substantial negotiating muscle mass and its quarterly least conditions are a potent sign as to the point out of play in the concentrates current market.

This quarter’s ground conditions are down from $58.00 and 5.8 cents in the fourth quarter and from $67.00 and 6.7 cents in the very first quarter of 2020.

Even this reduced to start with-quarter flooring may perhaps be on the optimistic side, since Fastmarkets is assessing the spot marketplace for copper concentrates at underneath $50.00 and 5 cents.

Quite evidently, copper mine output nevertheless has a way to go before satisfying smelter need.

Prolonged Restoration?

Supply need to increase as mine activity normalises along with everything else in the wake of COVID-19 vaccination programmes.

The ICSG’s Oct forecast was for globe mined copper generation to fall by 1.5% in 2020 but to arrive roaring back again with 4.6% advancement in 2021.

Matters, nonetheless, could not be that straightforward.

Take into consideration the scenario of the Las Bambas mine in Peru. Generation last 12 months was 311,000 tonnes of copper in concentrate, according to mine operator MMG Ltd.

The mine took a 70,000-tonne strike from a combination of COVID-19 limits on personnel, unplanned servicing and, to a lesser degree, neighborhood road blockages.

Generation recovered to pre-pandemic fees in the fourth quarter with onsite workforce amounts “now in excess of 90% of ordinary, with expanded COVID secure accommodation choices offered at web site and in community communities,” MMG mentioned,

But last year’s disruption will have a very long tail.

It was supposed to be “a 12 months of transition for Las Bambas, with an intended concentration on continuing to increase mining volumes to open up extra working faces, completion of the third ball mill and the enhancement of the (new) Chalcobamba pit.”

Most of that activity will now fall into this yr “with a return to better generation volumes in adhering to decades,” according to MMG. Generation in 2021 is expected to appear in close to 2020 amounts at 310,000-330,000 tonnes of contained copper right before increasing to 400,000 tonnes in subsequent decades.

Despite the fact that Los Bambas like other mines has learned to reside with COVID-19, it has completed so at the value of deferring growth function.

Very long COVID-19

When copper smelter conditions were being previous this lower – 2010 and 2011 – the copper price tag was at document highs.

That was no coincidence. The world’s miners were being collectively blindsided by the energy of China’s desire for industrial metals. Their incapacity to react saw tightness in the concentrates phase of the source chain transmitted into the refined metal area.

With Chinese need again booming and analysts hunting for a solid decide on-up in need from the relaxation of the entire world on the again of “green” technology roll-out, copper mine offer requirements to respond.

Even so, if Las Bambas is indicative of operational stresses in the rest of the sector, creation is not going to miraculously snap back to pre-pandemic amounts this calendar year.

Just as the planet commences to take into consideration the results of “long COVID-19” on human overall health, the copper marketplace requirements to commence executing the same for mine offer.

The views expressed in this article are those people of the creator, a columnist for Reuters.